Tooth pathology limited to the crown.
- Uncomplicated crown fractures – enamel and dentine exposed – pulp NOT exposed (T/FX/UCF);
- Enamel hypoplasia or carious lesion,
- Recent complicated crown fractures – pulp exposure <48hrs (T/FX/CCF).
Treatment: composite restoration, vital pulp capping.
Periodontally affected tooth.
- Increased periodontal sulcus depth or pocket formation,
- Furcation exposure, 3. Gingival recession.
Treatment: subgingival curettage, placement of bone graft material, dentinal bonding techniques
- Linguoversion of mandibular canine teeth (304,404)
Treatment: coronal extensions, construction of an incline plate